Water Without Minerals
Not all purified water is healthy

Reverse osmosis and other filtration and purification methods remove pollutants but unfortunately the process removes minerals as well, making it necessary and essential to add balanced minerals and trace elements back into the water after purification.

Demineralised water is highly aggressive, it attacks the water distribution piping and leaches metals and other materials from the pipes. It is also devoid of the crucial nutritional value of minerals and trace elements essential for the human body.

Pollution in SA water…

Experts’ opinions on SA Water

Dr Anthony Turton – Vice-president of the International Water Resource Association

“Five of South Africa’s major dams are contaminated with toxin levels that are among the highest in the world, and there is no current engineering solution to the problem. Because wastewater treatment plants are not
functioning properly, thousands of tons of raw sewage are being discharged into rivers, some of which flow into the Vaal River which provides 87% of Gauteng’s Tap water.

By 2013 an abundant supply of drinking water to municipalities, and the industry would not be guaranteed.”

In SA, water resources are comprised of the following sources: 77% from surface water (eg. dams and rivers) 14% from return flows (E.g. sewage and effluent purification and 9% from groundwater).

The major sources of water pollution are uncontrolled sewage, poorly managed wastewater treatment works, agricultural chemicals seep down from farm fields. Bacterial contamination from livestock defecation entering rivers and streams is widespread in SA.”

Prof. Carl Albrecht – Main Researcher of the Cancer Association of South Africa (CANSA)

”SA’s standard for uranium deposits in water is 70 microgram per litre, which is bizarrely high”. “The World Health Organisation’s standard for uranium deposits is 15 micrograms per litre. Surely it is irresponsible to differ so largely from the world standard”.

Marius Keet – Regional director Department of Water Affairs

”Pollution of rivers by raw sewage is probably affecting most rivers in SA. The biggest problem in the Vaal is not the metals but nitrates and phosphates, which comes from sewage flows. Extracting nitrates and phosphates is difficult and costly”.

Dr. Peter Ashton – Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)

”The water in many of the country’s dams is becoming more enriched with…sewage, industrial waste, mining waste, agricultural return flows, garbage, and seepage from waste dumps, which is slowly, gradually, building up over time.

That makes it more and more difficult for water treatment companies to take raw water, treat it and supply it to people to drink or industries to use.

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is one of the greatest threats to South Africa’s water because the waterways are already heavily burdened”.

Dr. Jo Barnes – Epidemiologist at the University of Stellenbosch

“Little is known about the potential effects stemming from the mixing of AMD and already contaminated water. There is total ignorance about what is going to happen when (mine) water hits the other problem we have, which is sewage-laden water. What the toxic compounds in the mine drainage will do to the sewage and the resultant health effects in the short and the long term will come from this unholy mix, nobody knows”.

“We are not very good at protecting the low-level, long-term uranium exposure,”. “If you contract little bits for every day for five years, 10 years, 20 years … will we see a drastic rise in cancers. We have to start preparing now.”

Dr. Frank Winde – The North-West University in Potchefstroom.

It will not be strange if uranium starts flowing out of the taps in Potchefstroom. There is so much uranium in the sediment that I cannot imagine the uranium level in the water to be safe. The department of Water Affairs does not require the uranium level in the water to be tested”.

Mariette Liefferink – CEO Federation for a Sustainable Environment (FSE)

”Waste from gold mines constitutes the largest single source of waste pollution in South Africa.”


Vaal River

About 80% of the wastewater treatment works in South Africa are “on the verge of collapse,” according to a report recently released. The report on the quality of sanitation in the country was set up by the department of water affairs, housing and co-operative government and the department of performance evaluation in the presidency and the national treasury.

According to the report, “particularly worrying” was the discovery that only 40 of the nation’s 826 water purification plants functioning properly and that 11% households of the country’s 50.5 million inhabitants have no access to sanitation.

The authors of the report believe it will require in the region of R44,75 

billion costs to provide infrastructure to those who have no access to sanitation and to restore the plants that do not function properly.

The report said one of the main causes of the situation is that the responsibility for fragmented between national, provincial and local authorities. “The result is that no one has accepted responsibility for it.”

They point out that technical capacity at local government level is lacking to maintain infrastructure. There is also a complete lack of ability to properly plan for maintenance and expansion of infrastructure.

Money allocated for sanitation is often used for other tasks, such as to build roads. The report was compiled by order of the Human Rights Commission.


Potentially the biggest water quality issue in South Africa, Acid Mine Drainage occurs when water collecting in disused mines dissolves minerals in ore seams and becomes highly acidic and radioactive as a result. The contaminated water drains back into wetlands and rivers.

Acid Mine Drainage water is also pumped into SA’s water sources. It is a hazardous toxic waste; a heavy metal toxic soup…SA’s own Chernobyl.

30 million litres of Acid Mine Drainage every day from Pomodzi gold mine.

This water is biologically dead, the sediment is radioactive and the pH is so low that it has dissolved a range of metals including Arsenic, Uranium, Iron, Manganese and Nickel.

Acid Mine Drainage facts:

  1. The current Western Basin untreated decant is 30 million litres per day. (pH-3 & radioactive).
  2. Wits decant potential is 350 million litres per day. This is 10% of  Gauteng’s water consumption
  3. 140 million litres per day is expected to decant in the next two years.
  4.  AMD will continue for centuries.


The maximum Uranium level in South African tap water is set at 70mcg/l, but that is much higher than the 15mcg/l stipulated by the World Health Organisation. Cancer-causing levels start at levels from 40mcg/l.

[mcg/l – micrograms per litre]

Deformed child; her mother ate clay from a river contaminated with radioactive Acid Mine Drainage.

Radioactive acid mine drainage will contribute 5% of the flow of the Vaal river and 25% of the salt load from January 2012. The impact will be catastrophic; SA’s own Chernobyl.

Dr. Frank Winde from the North West University in Potchefstroom confirmed that we should acknowledge that our uranium levels in the water are way above what they should be and that something should be done about it. Uranium only does damage, and all agencies state that our knowledge about the health effects of long-term, low-dose exposure to uranium-polluted water is not well understood.

The truth has been staring at us for a long time in the pages of scientists’ reports (funded by taxpayers), but most of these reports are difficult to access.

Uranium has been linked to lung, bone and other types of cancers, including leukaemia, kidney failure, neurological defects including learning disabilities, immune suppression, birth defects, respiratory infections, and skin and eye allergies, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). Most recently, uranium was found to be an endocrine-disrupting compound, it disturbs the natural activity of hormones, potentially affecting reproductive and immune function and acting as a carcinogen.

Health concerns of RO water…

Reverse Osmosis Water is demineralised water and not sutable for human consumption.  Drinking demineralised water results in flushing out essential minerals such as calcium and magnesium.

Lack of calcium and magnesium can also cause some types of cancer. Our bodies rely on these ionic minerals and trace elements to conduct and generate billions of tiny electrical impulses. Vitamins cannot function without the presence of minerals. Without minerals nothing in your body would function! Even the function of your heart and  brain impaired. Good drinking water should contain all essential minerals and essential trace elements.

Health Risks attributed to drinking demineralised (Reverse Osmosis) water:

  • Pre-term birth
  • Some types of cancer
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Increased diuresis, around 20%
  • Hyponatremic shock or delirium
  • Decreases bio-electrical impulses
  • Morphological changes in the kidneys
  • Increased mortality from cardiovascular disease
  • Low weight at birth
  • Eliminates electrolytes
  • Increased body water volume
  • Hyponatremic shock or delirium
  • Increased secretion of cortisol
  • Higher risk of fracture in children
  • Reduced skeletal ossification in fetuses
  • Swollen vascular endothelium limiting the blood flow

Water is life, without minerals Water has no life. It is dead and hungry water and will not hydrate the human body.


When cooking vegetables in Reverse Osmosis (demineralised, ‘dead’) water, a negative osmotic pressure is created in the vegetables which causes it to transfer all of its minerals into the water. That is, the vegetable would lose all its minerals which would transfer to the water, which is then thrown away into the sink. As a result, you would be eating vegetables lacking any essential minerals. Epidemiological studies confirm that consumption of low mineral food and drinking water is a risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease, gastric and duodenal ulcers, chronicgastritis, goitre, pregnancy complications and several complications in infants.

High loss of calcium, magnesium and other essential elements in food prepared with water having a low mineral level. If demineralised water is used for cooking it can cause substantial loss of all essential minerals from food. Since the current diet of many people does not provide all the necessary elements in sufficient quantities,it is important not to lose essential minerals and nutrients during cooking. Also, there is an increased risk of bacteria contamination from low-mineral water. Bacterial re-growth is encouraged by the lack of the of minerals in the aggressive demineralised water.

Health concerns of Ozonated water…


Ozone is highly volatile and will dissipate completely out of water in less than 30min. The oxygen level in water will always be exactly the same before and after ozonation. Ozone is a very aggressive and is normally used for bleaching substances and as a disinfectant to kill micro-organisms in water sources. Reverse Osmosis water is “dead” or “hungry” water and will react with anything, especially bacteria in the air of water tanks, hence the need to kill possible bacteria through ozonation. When ozone breaks down to dioxygen, oxygen free radicals, which are highly reactive and capable of damaging many organic molecules. It is believed that the powerful oxidizing properties of ozone may be a contributing factor of inflammation.

DANGERS from OZONE (O3) in water

Filtering ozone gas through water may create a chemical compound called “bromate”, which can cause:

  • Abdominal Pains
  • Hearing impairment
  • Kidney failure

In 2004 Coca-Cola had to withdraw it’s bottled water called Dasani from the UK market; it was found to contain excessive bromate levels caused by ozonation. Bromates are found in disinfected drinking water where ozone is used as a method of disinfection. The level of bromate is dependant on the amount of bromate found in the source water, the dosage of ozone and the pH of the water. All natural water sources contain bromide.

Health concerns of high or low pH water…

The human body is designed to be 7.365pH alkaline. So the water that you drink must be alkaline.

Although a pH higher than 8.6 may produce negative side effects. Such as the lowering of natural stomach acidity, which helps kill bacteria and expel other undesirable pathogens from entering your bloodstream. Gastrointestinal issues and skin irritations can also be caused by an overall excess of alkalinity in the body.

Too high alkalinity can also irritate the body’s normal pH, that can lead to metabolic alkalosis, a condition that may produce the following symptoms:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Hand tremors
  • Muscle twitching
  • Tingling in the extremities or face
  • Confusion

On the other hand, low acidic pH is not healthy either.

A pH lower than 7.365 may also produce negative side effects. The lungs and kidneys can normally neutralise slight pH imbalances, but excess acid in your body can be caused by cases where one or both of these organs are compromised. Any excessive acidic substance, even with both organs working may lead to a more acidic blood pH.

When the body has a low acidic blood pH, it can lead to Metabolic acidosis, a condition that may produce the following symptoms:

  • Rapid and shallow breathing
  • Confusion
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Sleepiness
  • Lack of appetite
  • Jaundice
  • Increased heart rate
  • Breath that smells fruity, which is a sign of diabetic acidosis (ketoacidosis)

Health concerns of Artificial Alkaline water and Distilled water…

Natural alkalinity occurs when water gets infused with minerals and trace elements.

However, there is a chemical process called electrolysis that forces the water’s pH to increase. According to them, an ionizer is used to separate more acidic or more alkaline molecules in the water.  Removing the acidic molecules leaving you with alkaline water. To ensure that no contaminants are present after ionization the water should go through the preferred Reverse Osmosis purification process. That removes not only contaminants but the minerals as well.

“A study published by the World Health Organization Trusted Source cautions against drinking water with low mineral content, which is created by reverse osmosis, distillation, and other methods (without additional mineralization) on a regular basis.”

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Health concerns of Natural Spring water and Bore Hole water…

Untreated water in particularly bore (borehole) water, river water or spring water including mineral springs can lead to sicknesses such as gastroenteritis and diarrhoea. Due to unknowingly drinking hidden contaminants, natural water sources are no longer safe.

Drinking contaminated water for long periods of time may lead to chronic health issues. There are four types of contaminants that can enter your drinking water: microbial pathogens like salmonella and dysentery, organic compounds like pesticides and solvents, inorganic compounds like arsenic and lead, and radioactive elements like radon and uranium.

Microbes can lead to illness from first consumption, causing symptoms like nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and stomach cramps. Whereas the other three types of contaminants usually take longer to show symptoms, these contaminants can build up and cause more severe problems like thyroid disease and cancer.

Drinking contaminated water will overload your body with toxins, placing stress on your organs and hindering the elimination process.

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